The study of all that was, is, and ever will be.

If you are a biology person, you will know that organisms are classified into groups based on similarities. These similarities can be found in cell structure, appearance, as well as ancestral lineage. All organisms on earth fall into these categories: Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, and Species. However, these are constantly changing. For instance, about 200 years ago, organisms were plants or animals. This was not descriptive enough for some scientists, though. They decided to divide organisms into 6 kingdoms. Each kingdom has its own unique characteristics that separate it from the others.

Plantae- Multicellular organisms with a nucleus, cell wall, and chloroplasts

Animalia- Multicellular organisms with a nucleus and can move on their own

Protista- Mostly unicellular with a nucleus; multicellular have simple cell structure

Fungi- Mostly multicellular with cell wall and nucleus

Bacteria- Unicellular organisms without nuclei

Archaea- Unicellular organisms that have no nucleus, distinctive chemical makeup, and can withstand extreme conditions

Humans fall under the category of Animalia, and are related (very broadly) to dolphins, apes, and even jellyfish. This is where the other classifications come in. They separate us from dolphins, jellyfish, and apes, and group us with other humans. The full name of a human is Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primate Hominidae Homo Sapiens.

Recently, scientists have added yet another division of classification. These are called domains. A domain is the most broad classification of an organism, and there are only three domains. Any multicellular or mostly multicellular organisms are fall under Eukarya. Bacteria and Archaea have there own domains to themselves. The reasoning for this is just to show that certain organisms are related to each other, even if they seemingly have no connections. It is kind of like saying that you sister's friend's aunt's cousin's dog's neighbor's foreign pen pal is related to you. I see no actual point in this addition, unless you are into confusing biology students.

There is actually another way to classify organisms, but, it is not widely accepted. It is called Tribe. Humans belong to the Tribe Hominini. Tribes fall under family, and are more specific in an organisms DNA. It is commonly used in zoology, and not often taught to students.

By popular request, I have decided to write an article about, well, the title. Here you go!
Molecule: 400-1600 AD, by Democritus, Epicurus, and Leucippus
Atom: 400 AD, by Democritus*
Meson: 1947, by Cecil Powell, César Lattes, and Giuseppe Occhialini
Baryon: 2006-2008, by Unknown to the Author
Quark: 1964, by Murray Gell-Mann
Lepton: 1897, by J.J. Thomson
Bosons: Unknown, by Satyendra Nath Bose
These are all the ones available to me. For more info, view my previous article:
Thank you for your requests! If you have more questions or concerns, please contact me at

Punnett square Solving

In genetics, alleles are notated with capital and lowercase letters.  For instance, a dominant trait might be A, with a recessive trait a.  A Punnett Square will find all possible child genotypes from two parent genotypes.

For example, if the parents have Aa and aa genotypes, the Punnett square looks like this:

In each box, you write the allele from the column and row its in. This gives the child possibilities.

Possible Punnett Squares

This leads to only a couple of possible Punnett Squares. The possibilities are:
ZZ * Zz
ZZ * zz
Zz * ZZ
Zz * Zz
Zz * zz
zz * ZZ
zz * Zz
zz * zz

But several are mirrors of others. Of course, genes are rarely this simple. This is a good basic skill for genetics and biology, and another example of math in science.

Terms used

allele: variation or possible value for a gene, denoted by a capitol(dominant) or lowercase(recessive) letter
child: offspring when two organisms reproduce
dominant allele/trait: a trait that is shown in the phenotype even if only one allele is present, shows up in ZZ or Zz
gene: unit of heredity, trait
genotype: what alleles make up an organisms trait
heredity: passing on of traits from parent to offspring
heterozygous: containing one dominant and one recessive allele, Zz, which produces a dominant trait in the phenotype
homozygous: containing both of either dominant or recessive alleles, ZZ or zz, which produces a dominant or recessive trait in the phenotype
phenotype: actual physical appearance of a trait
Punnett Square: a figure used to determine possible child genotypes
recessive allele/trait: trait shown in phenotype only if two alleles are present, shows up in zz

Introduction to Geneticcs
Chemical Equations Quiz

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Today I introduce Quiz Articles! This is how it works: I will post an article on a random subject of science. I will give you a few days to learn the material. Then, I will remove the article from the website and replace it with a quiz about the article. Have fun and good luck!

Scientists have recently discovered that the four fundamental forces act upon special fields. Certain things or qualities trigger the fields and allow particles or an excitation of these fields to act upon the object. Let’s say that we are talking about the moon. The moon has mass. This quality of the moon excites the field of gravity. Because it has this quality, it has gravitons, which in turn give it gravity. A graviton is the particle or excitation of the Gravity field. Each fundamental force has its own field upon which it acts upon and its own particle or excitation. They are Gravitons (Gravity), Photons (Electromagnetic), and the W- and Z- Bosons (Strong and Weak). These particles are actually energy in a form as an excitation. All particles are some form of condensed energy. Everything is energy.

Please note that the graviton is only hypothetical while the Photon and W- and Z- Bosons are confirmed to exist.

Our world is made primarily of molecules and compounds. These two things make up everything we know of. But, what makes up these two things? In this article, I will tell you all about the  inside of our world.

  • Compounds- Molecules mixed together until it is near impossible to detect differences between them.
  • Molecules- Combinations of atoms linked together by chemical bonds. They make up most everything.
  • Atoms- The basic building block of everything in the universe. Defined by different combinations of hadrons and electrons
  • Hadron- Particles made up of smaller particles. Baryons and Mesons.
  • Mesons- Include special particles with combinations of quarks and bosons.
  • Baryon- (Nucleons) Neutrons and Protons. Neutrons have no charge while protons are positively charged. Makeup the nucleus of an atom. Also includes Hyperons and other particles with varying amounts of quarks.
  • Quarks- Six different types: Up, Down, Strange, Charm, Top, and Bottom. Different combinations makeup the hadrons. Up, Strange, and Top all are Positively charged. The rest are negatively charged.
  • Leptons- Particles associated with chemistry and atomic decay. They are: Electron, Muon, Tau, Electron Neutrino, Muon Neutrino, and Tau Nuetrino. The first three are negatively charged while the rest are neutral.
  • Bosons- Carriers of force. Supposedly the reason why the four forces exist. They are Photons (electromagnetism), W and Z Bosons (Weak force), Gluons (Strong Force), Higgs Bosons (Mass), and finally Gravitrons (Gravity). All are neutral except Z Boson (negatively charged). Gravitrons have yet to be discovered.
  • Superpartners- Particles that may improve already discovered particles. They are: Neutralino, Chargino, Photino, Wino and Zino, Higgsino, Gluino, Gravitino, Sleptons, Sneutrino, and Squarks.

And that concludes our particles. Now there is also a set of particles OPPOSITE of these. These other particles makeup antimatter and some normal particles.

  • Antiquarks (antiup, antidown, antistrange, anticharm, antitop, antibottom)
  • Antileptons (antielectron/positron, electron antineutrino, antimuon, muon antineutrino, antitau, tau antineutrino)
  • Antiboson (W+ Boson)

Those are the only antiparticles I could find. Here are some bonus particles (Not yet discovered).

  • Gravitron, Graviscalar, Graviphoton, Axion, Axino, Saxion, Branon, Dilaton, Dilatino, X and Y Bosons, W’ and Z’ Bosons, Magnetic Photon, Majoron, Majorana Fermion, Chameleon Particle

Any questions? Ask a relevant question below!!!

There are certain things that you must do when handling possibly dangerous chemicals. Follow these easy steps to make sure you stay safe.

1. Choose a solid base- Make sure that the surface you are placing these chemicals on is sturdy and will not shake. Granite countertops are the best.
2. Make sure all equipment is clean- If the equipment you are using is unclean, the residue and leftover particles can interfere with the reaction. Clean test tubes with warm water and iron wool. Other equipment should be washed and dried properly.
3. Wear safety equipment- Cover your eyes and hands when working with chemicals. If anything goes wrong, you must be prepared.
4. Be aware of surroundings- Make sure you do not get chemicals on things that are not a part of your reaction. Use a sturdy cutting board in case of overflow. Wipe any and all chemicals that may have leaked or fallen onto a surface. Keep living things away from the reaction.
5. Know the warnings- Read the warning labels on any bottle of chemicals. Some chemicals are corrosive, flammable, and even poisonous.
6. Test for acidity- Some chemicals are highly acidic. If you don’t know whether they are or not, use a strip of Ph paper to test. If it turns red, it is highly acidic. If it turns green, blue, or even purple, it is not acidic. This is important! If you use the wrong equipment or get some on your hands, you could be in danger.
7. Choose good equipment- Glass test tubes are the best. You can use plastic, however. Make sure your equipment can withstand any reactions that may occur.

I hope you have fun experimenting!

Please do not copy without permission. Email me at if you would like permission or have any questions.

Hey everybody!!! Here is today’s leader board:

1st Place: METSMaster with 1 pt

Now, don’t worry if you aren’t sure if you know the right answer. You have everything to gain and nothing to lose!!! Everyone should answer!!!

Today’s problem:

H2C + O4 → H4 + C2O4

This isn’t as hard as it looks! Give it a try!!! From now on, use the contact form below fort your answers!

Hello everybody!!! I’m starting a new thing today called Chemical Equation Solver.

Here is the objective: To get as many of these problems correct. For every correct answer you get one point. Comment your answer along with the amount of points you currently have. If you get it right, I will post your name and how many points you now have.  If no one gets it right, the game is over and who ever had the most points wins. Good luck!!!

Lets start off easier…

H4O2 → H2 + O2


(Please note that the Chemical Formulas in these problems are NOT realistic and are for entertainment purposes only. Yes, I do know how a proper formula works.) is a popular computer game in which players fold proteins into the most efficient shapes. The game actually helps scientists find new proteins. It is an example of using the mass of people to solve real problems. is a free download and available on Windows, Mac, and Linux. Creating a membership is also free.

Players first work on practice puzzles that illustrate concepts, such as closing voids and not putting parts too close together. Players have a variety of tools, such as the “wiggle” tool, which helps find the correct shapes. As soon as you pass the practice puzzles, you are given a real problem. has found several helpful proteins so far. Players can work in groups, which are collaborations of several players. Groups can communicate through a chat area, and can view problems others in their group are working on. may seem like science, but it turns out to be a lot of fun.

Join METSplorations team! Mention that you came from this blog to automatically get accepted.

chronoChronotron from cool math games is a popular logic game in which players must use past versions of themselves to complete puzzles. In fact, it involves real physics, or at least real theoretical time-travel ideas.

For example, if a player makes it impossible for his past self to return to the time machine and go back to become what he is now, the game paradoxes and the player must start over.

Interesting ideas arise, such as your past self going back in time, thus increasing the amount of you’s on the level.

The game also has physics such as scales, levers, and gates.

Check it out for free at and look for Chronotron.