Physics, Chemistry, and the Universe
Atoms and forces, what makes everything go!

By popular request, I have decided to write an article about, well, the title. Here you go!
Molecule: 400-1600 AD, by Democritus, Epicurus, and Leucippus
Atom: 400 AD, by Democritus*
Meson: 1947, by Cecil Powell, César Lattes, and Giuseppe Occhialini
Baryon: 2006-2008, by Unknown to the Author
Quark: 1964, by Murray Gell-Mann
Lepton: 1897, by J.J. Thomson
Bosons: Unknown, by Satyendra Nath Bose
These are all the ones available to me. For more info, view my previous article:
Thank you for your requests! If you have more questions or concerns, please contact me at

Our world is made primarily of molecules and compounds. These two things make up everything we know of. But, what makes up these two things? In this article, I will tell you all about the  inside of our world.

  • Compounds- Molecules mixed together until it is near impossible to detect differences between them.
  • Molecules- Combinations of atoms linked together by chemical bonds. They make up most everything.
  • Atoms- The basic building block of everything in the universe. Defined by different combinations of hadrons and electrons
  • Hadron- Particles made up of smaller particles. Baryons and Mesons.
  • Mesons- Include special particles with combinations of quarks and bosons.
  • Baryon- (Nucleons) Neutrons and Protons. Neutrons have no charge while protons are positively charged. Makeup the nucleus of an atom. Also includes Hyperons and other particles with varying amounts of quarks.
  • Quarks- Six different types: Up, Down, Strange, Charm, Top, and Bottom. Different combinations makeup the hadrons. Up, Strange, and Top all are Positively charged. The rest are negatively charged.
  • Leptons- Particles associated with chemistry and atomic decay. They are: Electron, Muon, Tau, Electron Neutrino, Muon Neutrino, and Tau Nuetrino. The first three are negatively charged while the rest are neutral.
  • Bosons- Carriers of force. Supposedly the reason why the four forces exist. They are Photons (electromagnetism), W and Z Bosons (Weak force), Gluons (Strong Force), Higgs Bosons (Mass), and finally Gravitrons (Gravity). All are neutral except Z Boson (negatively charged). Gravitrons have yet to be discovered.
  • Superpartners- Particles that may improve already discovered particles. They are: Neutralino, Chargino, Photino, Wino and Zino, Higgsino, Gluino, Gravitino, Sleptons, Sneutrino, and Squarks.

And that concludes our particles. Now there is also a set of particles OPPOSITE of these. These other particles makeup antimatter and some normal particles.

  • Antiquarks (antiup, antidown, antistrange, anticharm, antitop, antibottom)
  • Antileptons (antielectron/positron, electron antineutrino, antimuon, muon antineutrino, antitau, tau antineutrino)
  • Antiboson (W+ Boson)

Those are the only antiparticles I could find. Here are some bonus particles (Not yet discovered).

  • Gravitron, Graviscalar, Graviphoton, Axion, Axino, Saxion, Branon, Dilaton, Dilatino, X and Y Bosons, W’ and Z’ Bosons, Magnetic Photon, Majoron, Majorana Fermion, Chameleon Particle

Any questions? Ask a relevant question below!!!

There are certain things that you must do when handling possibly dangerous chemicals. Follow these easy steps to make sure you stay safe.

1. Choose a solid base- Make sure that the surface you are placing these chemicals on is sturdy and will not shake. Granite countertops are the best.
2. Make sure all equipment is clean- If the equipment you are using is unclean, the residue and leftover particles can interfere with the reaction. Clean test tubes with warm water and iron wool. Other equipment should be washed and dried properly.
3. Wear safety equipment- Cover your eyes and hands when working with chemicals. If anything goes wrong, you must be prepared.
4. Be aware of surroundings- Make sure you do not get chemicals on things that are not a part of your reaction. Use a sturdy cutting board in case of overflow. Wipe any and all chemicals that may have leaked or fallen onto a surface. Keep living things away from the reaction.
5. Know the warnings- Read the warning labels on any bottle of chemicals. Some chemicals are corrosive, flammable, and even poisonous.
6. Test for acidity- Some chemicals are highly acidic. If you don’t know whether they are or not, use a strip of Ph paper to test. If it turns red, it is highly acidic. If it turns green, blue, or even purple, it is not acidic. This is important! If you use the wrong equipment or get some on your hands, you could be in danger.
7. Choose good equipment- Glass test tubes are the best. You can use plastic, however. Make sure your equipment can withstand any reactions that may occur.

I hope you have fun experimenting!

Please do not copy without permission. Email me at if you would like permission or have any questions.

Hey everybody!!! Here is today’s leader board:

1st Place: METSMaster with 1 pt

Now, don’t worry if you aren’t sure if you know the right answer. You have everything to gain and nothing to lose!!! Everyone should answer!!!

Today’s problem:

H2C + O4 → H4 + C2O4

This isn’t as hard as it looks! Give it a try!!! From now on, use the contact form below fort your answers!

Hello everybody!!! I’m starting a new thing today called Chemical Equation Solver.

Here is the objective: To get as many of these problems correct. For every correct answer you get one point. Comment your answer along with the amount of points you currently have. If you get it right, I will post your name and how many points you now have.  If no one gets it right, the game is over and who ever had the most points wins. Good luck!!!

Lets start off easier…

H4O2 → H2 + O2


(Please note that the Chemical Formulas in these problems are NOT realistic and are for entertainment purposes only. Yes, I do know how a proper formula works.)

chronoChronotron from cool math games is a popular logic game in which players must use past versions of themselves to complete puzzles. In fact, it involves real physics, or at least real theoretical time-travel ideas.

For example, if a player makes it impossible for his past self to return to the time machine and go back to become what he is now, the game paradoxes and the player must start over.

Interesting ideas arise, such as your past self going back in time, thus increasing the amount of you’s on the level.

The game also has physics such as scales, levers, and gates.

Check it out for free at and look for Chronotron.

What if you went to school and all through elementary to high school they tell you about how flat earth is and you do boring flat earth physics and then finally you get to college and they say PSYCH and show you a globe for the first time.

Sadly this exactly what we do with

1. Gravity– You probably have learned that gravity is based on mass and density and so you must have thought gravity cannot affect light, since it’s mass less.  Well, PSYCH! Gravity has nothing to do with mass or density directly, instead it depends on energy and momentum, which light certainly has.

2. Special relativity– Suppose there is a sheep running 2 mph, on a train also moving 2 mph. This means the sheep is running 4 mph, right? WRONG! Due to the earths curvature, you can’t add velocities just like that.

3. Momentum– You probably have been taught that Momentum = mass * velocity. I know I did, but actually that’s wrong. The real equation is  Momentum is mass times velocity divided by the square root of 1 – velocity divided by the speed of light. If that’s a bit hard to understand, I can show you a picture.